All the topics in Physics for class 11 and 12 may seem tough initially but once the students start learning the fundamental concepts of each topic and thoroughly understands it along with the constant practice of the numerical problems, the concepts will start to be quite easy to solve and answer. So, Waves is not the toughest chapter in class 11 physics and so are the other chapters as long as the students prepare and study these chapters early with enough time to practice and revise before the examinations.
Let us look into the concept and principles of Waves and sound in order to prove that this chapter is not so tough after all.
Definition of Wave:
A wave is a disruption in a medium that transports energy without causing net particle movement. Elastic deformation, pressure fluctuation, electric or magnetic intensity, electric potential, or temperature are all examples.
Characteristics of waves:
- Carries energy from one point to another.
- Most waves are characterized by repetitive and periodic motion.
- There is no net movement of the media or particles in the medium.
- The distance between two identical parts of a wave is known as the wavelength.
- The largest deviation from the neutral position is called amplitude. This indicates the wave’s energy. The amplitude of a wave conveys more energy. The location of a particular point in the medium as it moves when the wave passes are referred to as displacement. The amplitude of the wave is its maximum displacement.
- Frequency is the number of repetitions in Hz per second. It is denoted by
- A period is a duration for one wavelength to pass from one point to another.
Different types of waves:
Waves in which the medium travels at an angle to the wave’s direction. Transverse waves can be seen in the following ways:
- Waves of water (ripples of gravity waves, not sound through water)
- S-wave earthquake waves Light waves
- Instruments with strings
- A tidal wave
A crest proves to be the highest point of a transverse wave.It’s a trough at the bottom.
The movement of the particles in the medium in a longitudinal wave is in the same dimension as the wave’s movement direction.
Longitudinal wave examples:
- P-type earthquake waves are sound waves.
- Wave of compressio
Longitudinal wave components:
The particles are compressed when they are close together.
Rarefaction is the separation of particles.
A wave that requires the presence of a medium in order to propagate. Waves in Slinky, sound waves, and water waves are all instances of this.
These waves are disturbances that may readily move through the vacuum and do not require any object medium for propagation. Different magnetic and electric forces cause them to form. Electromagnetic Waves are periodic changes in magnetic electric fields that occur in a predictable pattern.
A wave may be characterized as any moving item. When a stone is thrown into a pond, the water is disturbed from its equilibrium positions as the wave goes by; once the wave has gone, the water returns to its equilibrium position.
The formula for the speed of a wave
The formula for the speed of a wave is the entire distance a wave travels in a particular amount of time.
Speed of a wave = Distance covered/Duration of time taken
- Frequency: The number of waves passing a location in a given amount of time is known as the frequency of a wave. The hertz (Hz) unit of frequency is equal to one wave per second.
- Amplitude: A wave is a kind of energy transmission. The amplitude of a wave is its height, which is generally measured in meters. It is proportional to the quantity of energy transported by a wave.
- Period: The period of a wave is the amount of time it takes for a particle on a medium to complete one full vibratory cycle. Because the period is a unit of time, it is measured in seconds or minutes.
- Wavelength: A wavelength is defined as the distance between identical locations in neighboring cycles of crests of a wave. In addition, it is measured in meters.
- Speed: An object’s speed refers to how quickly it travels and is generally represented as the distance traveled per unit of time.The distance traveled by a specific point on the wave (crest) inside a given amount of time is referred to as the wave’s speed.
Can you answer the question: The nature of sound waves in gases is
Not that we have looked at the basics of how waves work, we observed that the topic is not difficult to understand. The students just need to make sure they understand the basic concepts and spend an ample amount of time practicing the numerical problems to be thorough with the chapter of Waves.